Visit site An outline might be formal or informal. An informal outline working outline is a tool helping an author put down and organize their ideas. It is subject to revision, addition and canceling, without paying much attention to form.
Note that the caption and footnotes are in cells of the table. Measures List the measures variables you used and explain why you chose them, as shown below.
Then describe the assay for each under its own sub-subheading. Give an outline of established procedures and refer the reader to previous published accounts for details; for new procedures show enough detail to allow the reader to reproduce the procedures successfully.
Explain why you chose them. For repeated-measures designs omit the obvious treatment variable, but include numeric and nominal variables you have analyzed as covariates. These are variables in repeated-measures designs that you have assayed to try to explain the effect of the treatment.
Measure1 Describe the assay for the first measure under a sub-subheading, as shown here.
You may wish to group some measures under one sub-subheading, such as Training, Anthropometric, or Environmental Measures. Measure2 Describe the assay for the second measure under a sub-subheading, as shown here, and so on.
When mentioning a piece of equipment, you must state the model, the manufacturer, and the city and country of origin. Include relevant information on sampling or digitizing rates and data processing that led to the measure.
Analyses Name the statistical package or program you used. Describe the statistical procedures. Finish this section with this paragraph, or something similar: We have used means and standard deviations to represent the average and typical spread of values of variables.
The p values shown represent the probability of a more extreme absolute value than the observed value of the effect if the true value of the effect was zero or null. I believe this separation makes research articles more difficult to write and read.
Technicalities How close to reality were your measurements? In a repeated-measures study, how reproducible were the dependent variables?
How do the answers to these questions impact your findings? Address such questions about the validity and reliability of your measures here. You can also report any ancillary methodological findings. Use sub-subheadings if you wish. Outcomes Summarize the spread of values between subjects with the standard deviation, never with the standard error of the mean.
Show the precision of your estimates of outcomes with confidence limits. Try not to mention p values, statistical significance, null hypotheses, type I errors, and type II errors. State each result and discuss it immediately. Interpret the magnitude of each outcome in a qualitative way, using both your experience of the magnitudes that matter in this area of human endeavor and also any published scales of magnitudes e.Mar 05, · Writing a Research Paper.
This page lists some of the stages involved in writing a library-based research paper. Although this list suggests that there is a simple, linear process to writing such a paper, the actual process of writing a research paper is often a messy and recursive one, so please use this outline as a flexible guide.
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INTRODUCTION Background. This article is written in the form of an original-research paper for the journal Sportscience. A few of the requirements for form and content are unique to Sportscience, but most are common to all good scientific journals.
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