Although the conviction was overturned on May 31,by the Supreme Court of the United States, the firm ceased performing audits and is currently unwinding its business operations. The Enron Enron scandal was defined as being one of the biggest audit failures. For auditing a big sized company such as Enron, the auditors were criticized for having brief meetings a few times a year that covered large amounts of material.
Beer and wine were standard parts of military rations for centuries and were treated as both stimulants and medication. A change in military use of alcohol occurred when rum began to replace beer and wine in both the British Army and Navy in the 18th century. Rum was notoriously inexpensive in the Caribbean, had a higher alcohol content than beer or wine, and, consequently, required less storage space.
Prior to the s, a standard Royal Navy ration included either a pint of wine or one-half pint of brandy daily, although, on short voyages, a gallon of beer was occasionally substituted. After introduction of rum, British Army authorities estimated that an army of 36, would requiregallons a year of the liquor for standard rations with extra allotments before battles or during celebrations.
In areas outside North America, spirits other than rum—arrack in South Asia, whiskey in Ireland, and gin in the Far East—were substituted. Chronically underpaid British soldiers often worked part time at hired labor and were frequently paid in alcohol rather than money.
By mid-century, the majority of British soldiers were habitual drunkards. The problem was www.
John Bell calculated that the deaths among troops in Jamaica numbered eight times that among troops in Germany during the Seven Years War — and blamed rum for the disparity.
John Pringle and Donald Monro both favored military use of liquor as an aid to stamina and as protection against the elements. The argument was complicated by the fact that the military had begun adding Peruvian bark cinchona or quinine to wine, rum, or gin as antimalarials, and surgeons used alcohol as an anesthetic during battlefield surgery.
That altered view, combined with moving troops to barracks and the evangelical temperance movement, came together to result in a dramatic decrease in military alcohol abuse. Aftereven army canteens were forbidden to sell alcohol.
In fact, beer was ABC-CLIO mi l itar y medicine Ambulances and Transport frowned on as a German vice, and alcohol production was seen as an unnecessary diversion of scarce grain supplies that could be better used for food.
American ethanol production dropped during the war while U. In World War II, however, alcohol abuse again became common among American troops although it was generally treated more as a disease than as a disciplinary problem.
Alcoholism was diagnosed in 42, members of the U. Army in and alone and accounted for 42, hospital admissions among those troops between and The attitude toward alcoholism in the military changed again during the Viet Nam War.
Drunkenness was quietly tolerated and was probably seen as preferable to the widespread abuse of other drugs.
In fact, a belief was generally held that self-medication with alcohol was a reasonable and possibly effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Alcoholism among veterans of both the Korean and Viet Nam wars has emerged as a serious public health problem. As many as 75 percent of Viet Nam veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder have had alcohol problems at some time in their lives, and 25 percent of veterans of Korea and Viet Nam continued to drink excessively 10 years after discharge.
Alcohol abuse has persisted in the more limited military actions of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Among Norwegian United Nations peacekeepers sent to South Lebanon, 43 percent reported increased alcohol use during their deployment.
A Long Term Follow-Up.Auditing an Accounting Estimate.
Suppose management estimated the market valuation of some obsolete inventory at $99,; this inventory was recorded at $,, which resulted in recognizing a loss of $21, Chaelon Brennan 11/28/12 How to Steal $ Million The company Phar-Mor was participating in an unethical climate.
Mickey Monus was considered to be a trustworthy person by .
The Rise and Fall of Phar-Mor Inc. Luis W Lebron Fraud and Forensic Accounting College of Professional and Continuing Studies La Salle University W. Olney Avenue Philadelphia, TRANSCRIPT. Hidden Financial Risk Understanding Off–Balance Sheet Accounting 00 Ketz FM 5/21/03 AM Page i 00 Ketz FM 5/21/03 AM Page ii Hidden Financial Risk Understanding.
Consideration of fraud in financial statement audits. This case pertains to the Phar Mor video called “How to Steal $ Million” that you will view in class.
Research the professional standards for the auditors’ consideration of. New . Phar-Mor Fraud Essay “How to Steal $ Million” Phar-Mor Fraud The story of Phar-Mor is a tale of fraud, one of the largest in American corporate history, but it's also a modern morality play in which previously honest people, hired more or less at.