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Contributors Caffeine molecules are naturally found in coffee beans, tea leaves, cocoa and a variety of exotic berries. When ingested, caffeine can act as a stimulant in humans or a toxin in small animals and insects.
They can experience extreme side effects including, but not limited to irritability, muscle twitching, dehydration, headaches, increased heart rate, and frequent urination.
These side effects can be quite unpleasant, which is why many coffee manufacturers decaffeinate coffee. Introduction Decaffeination is a fairly easy process since caffeine is polar and water-soluble.
Swiss Water Processing The Swiss Water Processing method removes caffeine without using any chemicals, but instead applies the law of simple diffusion. First, unroasted green coffee beans are soaked in water until caffeine is dissolved in water. The beans are then discarded, and the solution of water, caffeine, and coffee solids is passed through a carbon filter.
The mixture creates a concentration gradient when added to a fresh batch of coffee beans.
Concentration gradients take advantage of the law of simple diffusion- the movement of molecules from an area of high solute concentration to an area of low solute concentration in order to 'even out' the uneven distribution of molucules.
This method is repeated until the coffee beans are Ethyl Acetate Processing Ethyl Acetate occurs naturally in many fruits, which is why this method is often referred to as natural decaffeination.
It is however much cheaper commercially to use synthetic ethyl acetate. This method requires a thorough steaming of the beans until swell. An ethyl acetate aqueous solution is used to wash the swollen beans repeatedly.
The caffeine molecules bind to the ethyl acetate molecules, and migrate through the cell membranes of cells of the beans. The beans are once again steamed in order to eliminate any ethyl acetate that remains.
Methylene Chloride Processing Direct Method- Steamed coffee beans are rinsed directly with methylene chloride which is a polar molecule and is good solvent to organic molecules.
The caffeine molecules hydrogen bond to the methylene chloride molecules, and are removed from the coffee beans, leaving the coffee solids flavor intact. Indirect Method- Coffee beans are rinsed with water, removing the caffeine molecules and coffee solids similar to the first part of the Swiss Water Process.
This solution is then treated with methylene chloride. The caffeine forms hydrogen bonds with the methylene chloride, leaving a coffee flavor aqueous solution.
The original coffee beans are soaked on this solution, allowing for the reabsorption of the coffee solids flavor.
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Processing Carbon dioxide supercritical fluid temperature above It behaves like gas, and permeates a porous substance, while also exhibiting liquid properties to dissolve substances. Although supercritical carbon dioxide is non-polar, and should only be able to dissolve non-polar substances, certain co-solvents, like water, can be added so that supercritical carbon dioxide can actually dissolve polar molecules like caffeine.
In order to use supercritical carbon dioxide to decaffeinate coffee beans, the beans are first steamed until they swell this is where the co-solvent, water, comes into play. After this, they are immersed in supercritical carbon dioxide which binds to the caffeine molecules and draws them out of the beans, leaving the coffee solids flavor embedded in the bean.
The carbon dioxide is then passed through a charcoal membrane that is selective toward carbon dioxide molecules. Usage of Removed Caffeine Once coffee beans have been decaffeinated, all of the extracted caffeine is made into a white powder and sold to the pharmaceutical or food industries.
The pharmaceutical industry adds caffeine into certain drugs, including many pain killers. Food industries add caffeine to certain foods like soda, because of its stimulating effect. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 39 5 Processes using supercritical fluids: International journal of chemical reactor engineering.Access to case studies expires six months after purchase date.
Publication Date: June 02, Starbucks Coffee Company: Transformation and Renewal analyzes the turnaround and reconstruction of.
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